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Soft law

Poland, Policy for the Development of Artificial Intelligence in Poland from 2020 onwards

Full name of the document
Polityka dla rozwoju sztucznej inteligencji w Polsce od roku 2020 (Policy for the Development of Artificial Intelligence in Poland from 2020 onwards)
Body / organism enacting the document
Polish Council of Ministers (Rada Ministrów)
Nature of the body / organism
Public Authority
Type of document
Project area
Cross sector, general scope
Law area
Fundamental rights protection
Public policy

Summary of the document

The Policy for the Development of Artificial Intelligence in Poland describes the challenges Poland faces with regard to AI in a cross-sectoral manner. The document, which is in a form of soft law (it is only an attachment to a resolution, not statutory law), states that there are six key focus areas, i.e. society, innovative companies, science, education, international cooperation, the public sector. Within each of these categories, there are short-term goals (by 2023), medium-term goals (by 2027) and long-term goals.  The aim of the AI policy is to use AI research and development to increase innovation and productivity in an economy built on data, as well as to support citizens in the processes of transforming their working environment and attaining competencies while protecting human dignity and ensuring conditions of fair competition on the global market. Poland, according to the authors of the report, has the potential to go from a challenger to an internationally recognizable leader in the field of artificial intelligence with the Invented in Poland brand.
One of the key elements of the document is the indication of existing sources of funding under which economic entities (businesses), local governments, scientific entities, or public administration units may apply for grants for the implementation and development of AI-related innovations. In addition, in each of the key areas, institutions responsible for carrying out policy in the area of AI were identified. More detailed description of the situations involved is described below. 
The policy as a whole is a document subject to evaluation as part of adjustments in the area of its implementation. This is the task of the so-called Artificial intelligence policymaking group at the Committee of the Council of Ministers for Digitalization. The policy implementer is the minister responsible for informatization.

Type of addressees
Public authorities, governmental agencies and bodies, local authorities
Territorial scope
Situations involved

The document identifies six key areas where AI development is taking place. The first is on the social aspect of AI development. This is about making changes in line with the European approach to so-called trustworthy AI while maintaining a high level of protection of human rights. As part of the development of an innovative economy, it was indicated that the demand for AI solutions should be increased on the one hand, and on the other hand, its supply in Poland should be increased through financial stimulation in the form of loans or tax facilities, as well as by increasing the number of state-owned companies implementing AI projects. In the area of science, it was pointed out that the key objective is to treat the discipline as interdisciplinary, considering not only the natural sciences, but also the humanities and social sciences in order to define the subsequent framework for the use of AI in social and economic life, and in particular the ethical framework. In the education sector, AI is expected to strengthen human capital, especially in mathematics, logic, technical sciences, but also in creative thinking skills and teamwork. This would be possible by implementing, as a short-term policy, the dissemination of practical knowledge about AI at all stages of education, and, as a medium-term policy, the implementation of a comprehensive way of teaching about AI. In the area of international cooperation, a discourse on the international development of this technology and how Poland can become competitive in this field was indicated. Meanwhile, within the public sector, it was pointed out how the efficiency of local and government administration can be increased with the support of new programmes. 

AI system(s) involved
  • All types of AI systems
Fundamental rights involved
  • Freedom of information
  • Freedom to conduct a business
  • Right to education
  • Right to good administration
  • Right to private and family life
  • Right to informed consent
  • Right to self-determination
Principles expressly addressed
  • Explainability
  • Precautionary
  • Transparency
Connection with hard law

The Policy is an attachment to a resolution of the Council of Minister of 12 January 2021 (M.P. 2021 poz. 23)

Possible legal force and impact on national/supranational legal system

A resolution of the Council of Ministers is not generally binding law, but it is nevertheless directional for the policy (including a legislative one) pursued by the government. 
The minister responsible for the development of the AI is the implementer of the policy for the development of the AI, and the evaluation of the policy is handled by the relevant group indicated above. 

Case author
Dominik Dworniczak
PhD Researcher
European University Institute (Florence)
Instytut nauk Prawnych Polskiej Akademii Nauk