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Transnational Training Event

Artificial intelligence in healthcare and the protection of health as a fundamental right

Trento (Italy),
18-19 January, 2024
18-19 January, 2024
Host Partner
Faculty of Law
Via Verdi, 53
Trento (Italy)
Programme (60.97 KB)
Event poster (267.42 KB)


Moving from the latest developments in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) at EU level, the workshop is aimed to guide judges and other trainees in addressing legal issues raised by the use of AI systems in the field of health. Special regard will be given to the effective protection of fundamental rights involved: the right to health, data protection, the right not to be discriminated against due to biases embedded in AI systems. The impact of AI on the doctor-patient relationship will be discussed, both in diagnostic and therapeutic phases.

An interdisciplinary dialogue, involving medical practitioners, IT experts and psychologists together with judges, lawyers and legal scholars, will enable to examine the extent to which AI allows a higher protection of health as a fundamental right; whether and how it impacts on the level of information due to the patient, on the modes of patient’s consent and on the level of care due by the doctor, by IT operators involved and by healthcare facilities; how risks linked to the use of AI-based technology should be assessed within the doctor-patient relationship and, ex post, in liability claims. The link between medical liability, product liability and AI operators’ liability will be examined in the context of the recent EU initiatives in this field.


The workshop will be structured as follows: a first part will be devoted to the impact of AI on the patient-doctor relationship and the patient’s consent, whereas a second part will focus on the upcoming changes brought by EU legislation in the area of AI- and product-liability as applied in the field of tele-medicine, wearable health devices, AI-robotics and the like.

Workshop activities will include keynote speeches, interdisciplinary roundtable discussions and practical sessions (Justice Labs) aimed at presenting concrete applications of AI technology in the field of health and their possible implications in the adjudication of liability cases.


9:00 – 9:15Registration
9:15 – 9:45

Welcome & presentation 

Artificial intelligence and the protection of health as a fundamental right: introduction to the workshop

Paola Iamiceli (UniTrento) - Mireia Artigot I Golobardes (UPF)

9:45 – 11:15

The use of artificial intelligence in healthcare: challenges and opportunities

Chair: Paola Iamiceli

Marco Zenati (Harvard Medical School and University of Trento) 
Carlo C. Quattrocchi (University of Trento, Department of Medical Sciences) 
Marco Spadaccini (IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital) 
Andrea Passerini (University of Trento, Department Information Engineering and Computer Sciences)


11:15-11:30Coffee break

Artificial intelligence and fundamental rights: setting the ethical and legal framework in Europe

Chair: Mireia Artigot Golobardes

Lee Hibbard (Council of Europe, Bioethics division) 
Timothée Paris (French Council of State) 
Giuseppe Buffone (Permanent Representation of Italy to the EU) 
Fabienne Jault-Seseke (University of Paris Saclay) – Simone Franca (University of Trento)


13:15-14:45Lunch Break
14.45 -16:30

Group activity (Justice Lab) 
AI in healthcare, informed consent and medical liability for breach of information duties and invalid consent

Methodological introduction: Laura Piva (University of Trento)

Plenary session (groups presentation)

Chair: Sandra Passinhas (University of Coimbra)

16:30-16:45Coffee break

Roundtable on AI and the patient – doctor relationship: AI applications, medical decision-making, the role of informed consent and the liability implications

Chair: Fabrizio Cafaggi (Italian Council of State)

Ketty Mazzocco (University of Milan and European Institute of Oncology)
Stephanie Gargoullaud (French Court of cassation)
José María Fernández Seijo (Commercial Court of Barcelona) 
Petkiewicz Jakub (District Court in Opole Lubelskie – Poland)

 AI and medical liability: how do they interact? 

The forthcoming EU legal framework on AI and Product Liability and its impact in the field of healthcare

Chair: Sonia Ramos Gonzàlez (UPF)

Yannos S. Tolias (European Commission, DG for Health and Food Safety)


09.30 -11:00

Roundtable on AI liability in the health sector and the protection of health as a fundamental right

Chair: Timothée Paris (French Council of State)

Mindy Duffourc (Maastricht University)
Silvio Ranise (UniTrento and FBK)
Kai Härmand (Harju County Court, Estonia) 
Monika Wlodarkzic (District Court in Chrzanów, Poland)
Norbert Ostrò (Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic)

11:00 -11:15Coffee break

Group activity (Justice Lab) 
AI liability and the relation between product liability and medical liability

Methodological introduction: Tommaso De Mari (University of Trento)

Plenary session (groups presentation)
Chair: José Pablo Carrera Fernández (Consejo General del Poder Judicial)

Practical session’s tutors:

Tommaso De Mari (University of Trento), 
Simone Franca (University of Trento), 
Mireia Artigot Golobardes (University of Pompeu Fabra), 
Sonia Ramos Gonzàlez (University of Pompeu Fabra); 
Sandra Passinhas (University of Coimbra), 
Federico Pistelli (University of Trento), 
Laura Piva (University of Trento)


Ensuring effective protection of fundamental rights in AI-supported healthcare: the way forward

Chair: Sandrine Clavel (UVSQ)

Oreste Pollicino (Fundamental Rights Agency and Bocconi University)

13.30End of the workshop
18-19 January, 2024
Faculty of Law
Trento (Italy)